Wagner eternamente moderno (Spanish Edition)


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After this false beginning, the novel lists its credits and provides a group of epigraphs that announce future events. Toward the end, it closes with an epilogue in which the action returns to the time when the novel was written, and several of the central motifs are recapitulated. In terms of the story line, the action is initially set in New Orleans during the roaring twenties.

An epidemic called Jes Grew has broken out and is spreading dangerously in the direction of the great urban centers of Chicago and New York. The central plot deals precisely with the search for the Text, a search that has two antagonists: Parallel to this central story line, the novel develops several subplots whose mutual relationship is revealed as the reading progresses. Harding and the occupation of Haiti by US troops. Abdul dies grasping in his hands an epigram in which the key to locating the Book is encoded.

A letter written by Abdul just before his death and reproduced at the end of the novel tells us that Abdul himself had burned the Text on the grounds that it was obscene. The epilogue of Mumbo Jumbo presents LaBas as a hundred year old man giving a lecture on Jes Grew to a group of students in the sixties or seventies the years during which the novel was written.

After several decades of oblivion, Jes Grew begins to show signs of reemerging. Mumbo Jumbo combines real historical events, documented—but probably false—gossip, and fantasies completely invented by Reed. Labas is in reality the name that this Haitian loa spirit has been given in the United States.

Rafael Argullol

In order to do so, he puts the characters, and therefore the readers themselves, in contact with the spiritual world of African American tradition. LaBas is the guide who allows us access to the dark areas of myth and history. Du Bois; numerous soirees in which black artists, musicians, and writers interacted with art dealers, producers, and publishers; and many photographs of almost all well-known African Americans in the United States Douglas ; Kellner The former, better known as Madame C.

Both are ex-convicts who became self-educated while in prison, and both are Islamic black activists whose rhetoric has a wide audience among the black masses De Filippo He soon became involved with Muslim organizations and led a movement to force business owners in black neighborhoods to hire black employees. In Hamid moved to Harlem, where he tried to repeat the success of the Chicago campaign, yet there he found strong opposition from the Left and from conservative African Americans.

After being arrested in , he became disillusioned with political activism and returned to his former mysticism. While the novel openly mocks his deeply moralistic view and censors his dogmatic tendencies, it evaluates positively the recuperation and embracement of African origins that characterizes black nationalism. Many of the historical characters, such as presidents Woodrow Wilson, Warren G.

Washington, Marcus Garvey, W. Jung , help make up the historical background of the novel, but are not main agents in its major story line, which is the search for the Text and the deciphering of its mysteries. In Mumbo Jumbo, Reed lays the foundation for the historical and aesthetic world view that he has developed throughout the rest of his career.


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Stemming from a heterogeneous collection of cultural systems, he constructs a whole new mythology that seeks to undermine some of the dominant assumptions regarding the role of blacks in history. Rather than attempting to impose a new cultural system, Reed focuses on the relentless critique of prevailing views.

In this novel, Reed undertakes the task of reconstructing the origin and history of that tradition. To that end, he recreates a past in which documented and apocryphal characters and events coexist, the result being a hybrid that inverts stereotypes about African American cultural inferiority. Although Reed frequently resorts to apocryphal data, he also supports his version with others that are empirically demonstrable.

This structure depicts a novel Mumbo Jumbo in which an archetypal reader LaBas seeks a book, produced by an archetypal writer Thoth , which inaugurates literature, and which, all seems to suggest, is a book with the same characteristics as Mumbo Jumbo. As a consequence of this mechanism of paradoxical duplication, Mumbo Jumbo spotlights the textual nature of its whole referential universe, including the historical referent itself.

Unlike other world views, Neo-HooDooism resists restrictive encodings. From these examples and their manifestations in Mumbo Jumbo, we can identify a series of tendencies that constitute Neo-HooDooism, including: All these characteristics form a historical-aesthetic counter-system that seeks to rewrite historical and literary traditions in order to demystify the hegemonic forms of representation.

After a work as ambitious and innovative as Mumbo Jumbo, it is not surprising that critics were less enthusiastic about The Last Days of Louisiana Red The victim, Ed Yellings, is representative of the industrious black bourgeoisie. The novel suggests that Yellings had been a member of a secret society at war with a conglomerate of multinational capitalism and Judeo-Christian culture known as the Louisiana Red Corporation.

Chorus is representative of the situation of blacks in a white world, caught in a restricted role and permanently threatened with expulsion. In actuality, however, Reed is attacking the tragic sense of life that has permeated both Judeo-Christian culture and black liberation movements. Through the so-called Moochers, Reed criticizes the intolerant attitudes and gratuitous violence rampant among the most radical sectors of the black nationalist movements, something he had already condemned in each of his previous novels, and that now becomes the main focus of his satire.

In its pages he attacks the most untouchable myths of US tradition, focusing on the period of the Civil War. Lincoln is portrayed as an illiterate and opportunist who declares emancipation of the slaves in an act of cunning political pragmatism. Along with nineteenth-century characters and situations, the novel introduces elements from twentieth-century technology telephones, walkie-talkies, microphones, cassettes, xerox machines, radios, TVs, videos, computers, cars, airplanes, and helicopters.

Raven Quickskill, the protagonist, escapes to Canada in a jumbo jet. The result is one of the most aggressive expressions of what Brian McHale has called the postmodernist revisionism of the historical novel. Flight to Canada describes the process of its own writing. The novel Quickskill writes is most probably Flight to Canada, and its narration takes up the subsequent pages. The novel ends with its protagonist coming to an understanding of his own condition: Canada is only a state of mind, a desirable ideal the black writer has to strive for, no matter where he may be physically.

In its pages Reed develops tendencies he had outlined in previous novels, especially Mumbo Jumbo. The Terrible Twos chronicles a conspiracy launched by big business and the White House to monopolize the Christmas market. Using this trivial plot as a pretext, Reed again dismantles the most sacred elements of US politics the presidency and lobbyists , economics capitalism and large corporations , and folklore St. Nicholas, Christmas, and Thanksgiving.

The United States is portrayed as a self-centered two-year old child who sees the world as an extension of himself; the diversity and depth of African American legends and myths serves as a contrast to this narcissistic and egocentric view of contemporary North America.

Between the two Terribles, Reed published what seems to be his most straightforward—and probably most unsuccessful—novel: The setting is an imaginary present where intellectuals are victims of an aggressive wave of neo-Nazism and a fanatic feminist conspiracy. Too frequently Reckless Eyeballing seems to be an attempt to settle old personal scores with his personal enemies the white intelligentsia, the social realist critics, and the feminist movement. In this work Reed takes on the subject of intolerance in the academic world.

In his later works, except for Flight to Canada, Reed has merely developed those elements further. They frequently refer to the dark areas of the past in order to understand present reality. What he ultimately proposes is an oppositional aesthetics free from any kind of formal or ideological constriction. This search for freedom on all domains leads him to experimentation with all genres—especially those of popular culture—remodeling them into a new blend of a hybrid and original nature. Jeho-vah is the God of punishment. His death—he died trying to demonstrate his mystical powers while aloft in an airplane—seems to have been taken from a Reed novel, rather than from real life.

Baker, for example, points out that Louisiana Red is modeled on the same patterns used in Mumbo Jumbo, but it lacks the interest and ambition of the previous novel For a summary, see Martin Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, Fingering the Jagged Grain: Tradition and Form in Recent Black Fiction.

The University of Georgia Press, Rebel Sojourner in the Harlem Renaissance. Louisiana State University Press, The Mirror in the Text. Jeremy Whiteley and Emma Hughes. University of Chicago P, De Filippo, Bernard John.

Similar authors to follow

The Novels of Ishmael Reed. The Divine Gods of Haiti. Mongrel Manhattan in the s. Brautigan, Gold and Reed.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. A Critique of the Sign and the Signifying Monkey. New York and London: Voodoo and Life in Haiti and Jamaica. A Historical Dictionary for the Era. Voodoo and a Red Rooster. The MacMillan P, Northeastern University Press, Interviews with Black Writers. Ottley, Roi, and William Weatherby, eds. The Negro in New York: An Informal Social History. The New York Public Library, Yellow Back Radio Broke-Down. The Last Days of Louisiana Red. Shrovetide in Old New Orleans. New and Collected Poems. Fragments from an Unwritten Autobiography.

Yale University Press, Similarly, in his gothic novel A Strange Story , the Victorian writer Edward Bulwer-Lytton explores the limits of the body, the mind, and the soul in a post-Darwinian text that dwells on the discourses of religion and science in Victorian England. Gothic narratives illuminate psychoanalysis, while psychoanalytic endeavours consider the central points that tend to be examined within the gothic genre. In psychoanalysis, interpretation moves from the isolated act or symbol to consideration in relation to other symbols of the psyche.

Thus, through psychoanalytic interpretations, gothic narratives are decoded as particularly allegorical and, it is precisely through this allegorical quality pertaining to the gothic genre, that issues such as sex, class, race, and culture are examined, revised and subverted. As Kahane asserts, the daughter- and-mother bond becomes a mirror for the fragmentation of identity since merging with a mother imago threatens all boundaries between the self and the other It is this abjection what disturbs identity, system, and order, thus becoming the in- between, the ambiguous, and the composite Kristeva Nonetheless, the gothic, as a domain whereby boundaries are constantly blurred, is particularly prone to accept alternative readings.

Likewise, Richards argues that Poe often suffers delusions of masculine strength while inadvertently exposing the psychic femininity he hides from himself These allegorical interpretations not only apply to the evolution of the individual subject but also extend to the social psyche of the nation. Darwinian ideas made a great impact on the Victorian society of the time. In the preface to his earlier novel Zanoni, Bulwer- Lytton had already claimed he intended to explore the union between the plain things of the day, performed by the earthly bodies, and the invisible and latent qualities of the soul.

As Bailin admits, the condition of being ill dwells on images and explanations with regard to the spirit, the mind, the social body and the body politic, to the extent narratives of illness address paradoxes of unity and the duality of body and mind, the ambiguity of the self as subject and object, as well as the opposition between natural and social beings 8. The Victorian cult of invalidism and the ethics of true womanhood rendered women as tamed invalids that were required to disregard their own will to comply with femininity.

Nonetheless, this apparently reactionary discourse can also be subverted.


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  • In nineteenth-century America, Poe made use of female catalepsy to portray dead-looking women who turned to be much more alive than their mournful male counterparts expected, while the latter strove to exorcise their fear at the thought of inescapable death and being buried alive. Bulwer-Lytton himself provided explanations of the symbolic meanings of each character in the preface to the novel.

    As a true materialist, Margrave, the villain of the novel, stands for nature and body; Fenwick mainly relies on intellect and the powers of the mind, while Lilian, as an embodiment of the true visionary, stands for the soul. Consequently, they are not truly dead, but dead in appearance, they are therefore undead, and thus able to come back to life at their own volition. Morella makes use of her immortal will to reincarnate in her daughter.

    Through metempsychosis, she is able to overextend her earthly life. It is a fair day for the sons of earth and life — ah, more fair for the daughters of heaven and death! They are reborn again and brought back to life to a new existence, from children to women. Through enclosure, they are literally taught the ways of feminine behaviour, which often resemble the condition of life-in-death, that is, the cataleptic condition: He is senseless and externally motionless; but the pulsation of the heart is still faintly perceptible; some traces of warmth remain; a slight color lingers within the centre of the cheek; and, upon application of a mirror to the lips, we can detect a torpid, unequal, and vacillating action of the lungs […] the closest scrutiny, and the most rigorous medical tests, fail to establish any material distinction between the state of the sufferer and what we conceive of absolute death.

    When Martineau became an invalid, her independence was under threat. But through her convalescence she managed to extricate herself from the custodial role of her family, friends, patrons, and readers Winter They truly become new women, and so mesmerised narrators, buried in thought, are unable to recognise them properly as they become a source of fear and anxiety. There was blood upon her white robes, and the evidence of some bitter struggle upon every portion of her emaciated frame. In the Victorian period, families often kept the portrait of their loved ones which was taken shortly after their death.

    These post-mortem portraits often aided in creating the illusion that their recently-departed relatives were still alive, and so their dead bodies were often shaped so as to bestow a virtual sensation of life through artistic endeavours. They lead a life-in-death as they often lose touch with their present reality.

    As opposed to mesme rised male narrators, female invalids corresponded responded to women who were apparently alive, but truly, were considered to be non-valid, thus dead for the rest of society. They had no visibility outside of the walls of the Victorian home. Invalid females were regarded as the epitome of femininity, while ostracised if they indulged in frenetic activity or dared to trespass the behaviour clearly delimited for young females. As Mrs Ashleigh narrates as regards her own daughter Lilian: I then went upstairs to join my daughter, and to my terror found her apparently lifeless in her chair.

    She had fainted away. I got her to bed, and as she then fell quietly to sleep, my mind was relieved. I thought it only a passing effect of excitement, in a change of abode […] About three quarters of an hour ago she woke up with a loud cry, and has been ever since in a state of great agitation, weeping violently, and answering none of my questions. Yet she does not seem lightheaded, but rather what we call hysterical.

    Bulwer- Lytton, A Strange Story 46 Lilian is only given credit once Margrave discovers her capacity to gain access into the higher spheres of existence. As a Rosicrucian, Bulwer-Lytton felt the need to juxtapose the different spheres of existence, the mind, the soul, and the body as necessary to gain insight into the full meaning of existence on earth. Lilian, though her kindness and commitment to her duty, represents the embodiment of femininity in the Victorian society.

    Nonetheless, as happens with Fenwick, she is also compelled to face the dark aspects of life before resuming her former existence. Lilian feels mesmerised by Margrave, thus, by the charm of the body, which unsurprisingly coincides with her marriage to Fenwick. It is worth noticing that as a Victorian heroine, Lilian is mesmerised, a metaphor that seems to be pointing at sexual arousal, and consequently, at death for virginal Lilian: It is a peculiarity of youth to brood over the thought of early death much more resignedly, much more complacently, than we do in maturer years.

    Fenwick can prevent Margrave from abducting Lilian only by physically grappling with him and taking away his magic wand. By contrast, both Margrave and Fenwick are enabled to come of age. Fenwick discovers his faithful reliance on the powers of the mind should be counterbalanced by the importance given to the physical senses. In his case, Margrave is compelled to admit that his will to transcend the occult in nature must be punished. Margrave is granted immortality through an elixir of life, which bears some points in common with the Saint Grail and thus with the tradition of the Arthurian legends.

    Actually, Bulwer-Lytton himself had published a book entitled King Arthur. Like Faust, Margrave wishes to make a deal with Mephistopheles in order to achieve eternal life. Like Faust and Victor Frankenstein, Margrave plays the role of God, and therefore, he is harshly punished. He was singularly temperate, having a dislike to wine, perhaps from that purity of taste which belongs to health absolutely perfect. No healthful child likes alcohol; no animal, except man, prefers wine to water. But his main moral defect seemed to me in a want of sympathy, even where he professed attachment.

    He who could feel so acutely for himself […], and sob at the thought that he should one day die, was as callous to the sufferings of another as a deer who deserts and butts from him a wounded comrade. Moreover, Bulwer- Lytton believed in the power of the unconscious to break through to new perceptions. If effective, the source of the fear they aspired to arise in the readership was mainly based on commonly-shared social anxieties, so that readers would also be able to identify the source of anxiety the narrator was disclosing through his narrative.

    Moreover, the United States had recently become independent from the English metropolis. Thus, social anxiety lied in the future to come after such splendorous past. Bulwer-Lytton himself felt this anguish throughout his own life. Brought up in his family manor, Knebworth, he was constantly reminded of the historical legacy he received from his family, especially through the overwhelming presence of his mother, even after her death. Nonetheless, he felt the need to project all his past onto the future to ascertain his purposes in life will have some continuity in the days to come.

    As an heir to a glorious dynasty, he felt trapped by the past, but also felt the necessity to continue his family saga. Despite the fact he seemed rather sceptical as regards immortality and eternal life, he felt overwhelmed by his own interest in the occult and the afterlife. His fame as a writer gradually fell into oblivion, probably due to his intricate style and his extravagant verbosity, unable to match any modernist demands. In any case he will always be remembered as one of the great Victorians.

    Poe, however, has often been at odds to be considered properly American. Through his letters to his foster father John Allan, he aspired to become a Southern gentleman and inherit his fortune. Some people would say he aspired to be English. After the recent American war of independence, the United States as nation underwent a period of transition, a period of aging, from being a dependent child of the metropolis to grow up as an adult nation.

    Poe seemed to remain dependent on his foster father John, on his aunt Muddie, and especially, on women. Some of his male narrators are mesmerisers who exert dominion over hypnotised men and women. Nonetheless, their attempts at exerting power over them often end in failure. Their hypnotised victims die while being in the mesmeric trance. Thus, the narrator only exerts dominion over past human beings, over corpses and dead matter. Upon the bed, before that whole company, there lay a nearly liquid mass of loathsome — of detestable putridity.

    Drawing on psychoanalytical readings, Poe is caught in the transient period of coming of age as an adult and as a citizen of a newly- created nation. They leave behind their feminine role to be reborn and lead an existence of their own. Poe himself betrayed his own dependence on women from his aunt Muddie to his wife Virginia. Virginia Poe remained an invalid throughout her short life.

    Despite her youth, her countenance closely resembled that of a dead person, to the extent her quietness in life reminded of her stiff appearance in death. And yet, either in life or death, Poe felt overwhelmed by his own mental dependence on his wife. Poe was the truly mesmerised one, buried in thought, while the women of his life were constantly brought back to life through metempsychosis. He was even engaged to be married when he died. The boundaries which divide Life from Death, are at best shadowy and vague.

    Who shall say where the one ends, and where the other begins? We know that there are diseases in which occur total cessations of all the apparent functions of vitality, and yet in which these cessations are merely suspensions, properly so called. Current Neo- Victorian theories often draw their focus of attention back to the past so as to cast a suspicious glance over any clearly-assumed and commonly- accepted state of affairs. Thus, popular narratives, and especially, gothic texts subvert mainstream Victorian discourses as regards the cult of domesticity and the ethics of true womanhood.

    Invalids are unable to grow up as female adults and thus remain minors all their life; while cataleptic ladies undergo a deadly rite of passage from angels of the house to new women as they are reborn despite their presumed death, and trespass the threshold of morality, remaining beyond the boundaries of femininity in their afterlife condition. Mesmerised narrators are hooked onto life through their powerful will as the American psyche drew back to its former metropolis through their process of emancipation.

    Meanwhile, formerly British individuals insist on surviving in the newly-shaped American psyche, remaining in an un dead condition and aspiring to achieve immortal existence. The Sickroom in Victorian Fiction. The Hogarth Press, The Fiction of New Regions. The M other Tongue: Essays in Feminist Psychoanalytic Interpretation. Cornell University Press, The Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection. Life in the Sickroom. A Companion to the Gothic.

    usimizokej.ga: Rafael Argullol: Books, Biography, Blogs, Audiobooks, Kindle

    Van Doren Stern, Philip, ed. Chatto and Windus, The Historical Journal, The process of displacement that Nazneen endures when she leaves her home renders her in a position in which she has to come to terms with a different culture and a completely different language.

    The novel was shortlisted for the Man Booker Prize in the year of its publication and Ali was included in the Granta list of novelists. Brick Lane has been praised as much as it has been criticised. Ali depicts and puts in the limelight a part of the Bangladeshi community that had been invisibilised and silenced: We spent months working with the community. We had lots of Bangladeshi crew and cast …. Nonetheless, just when we were about to start shooting on Brick Lane itself, we got a phone call at midnight reporting threats against us if we went ahead.

    It was a lesson in how the person who shouts the loudest gets the most attention Gavron In this respect, Brick Lane was disapproved of for being a literary work whose aim was to respond to the commercial needs of a particularly white literary audience Hussain This is related to the issue of representations of cultural otherness in contemporary British literature. The novel is deemed as being the outcome of the approach of an author who locates outside of the Bangladeshi community: Her ambivalent condition both enables and disables her to write about the Bengali community in Britain.

    On the one hand, as the daughter of a Bangladeshi father who lived in Bangladesh, she has reverberations of her life that inspire her work. I could set lines of inquiry about my book into two broad camps. The other reaction is rather different. How can I write about a community to which I do not truly belong? Perhaps, the answer is I can write about it because I do not truly belong.

    Growing up with an English mother and a Bengali father means never being an insider. Standing neither behind a closed door, nor in the thick of things, but rather in the shadow of a doorway, is a good place from which to observe. As Liz Bondi points out, there is a relation between identity and space. The spaces that affect the individual cover a wide range of possibilities that goes from the most immediate one, the body, to the interaction of the latter with a broad and more general space in which a person lives, society.

    La Mejor Música Clásica Vol I - Mozart, Bach, Beethoven, Chopin, Brahms, Handel, Vivaldi, Wagner

    Accordingly, the notion of individual subject ceased to be regarded as stable, universal and degendered, as it was described in Cartesian thought. With the theoretical changes brought about by postmodern and poststructuralist theories the individual subject was viewed as an entity in a continuous process of formation Grosz; Mercer; McDowell. Her identity and her perception of herself and of her possibilities change.

    Nevertheless, movement does not entail an opening of opportunities for her. It does not broaden her horizons or better her living circumstances. This is shown through the narrative by contrasting the description of her present situation and the real space in which she is located to the recollections of her past life in Gouripur.

    The idea of going back home is a constant presence in the mind of Nazneen at the beginning of the narrative. On the one hand, the real space of her apartment in London which brings about feelings of fatality and death. On the other hand, an imaginary space that is associated with her past reality in Gouripur and is equated with brightness and life. This imaginary space is used as an escape resource and as a counter-space to the real space that surrounds her.

    Nazneen resorts to this alternative reality, which is full of life and possibilities, to soothe her mind: Nazneen fell asleep on the sofa. She walked arm-in-arm to school with Hasina, and skipped part of the way and fell and they dusted their knees with their hands. And the mynah birds called from the trees, and the goats fretted by, and the big sad water buffaloes passed like a funeral. And heaven, which was above, was wide and empty and the land stretched out ahead and she could see to the very end of it, where the earth smudged the sky in a dark blue line.

    I consider her house as a domestic space and not a private space. The private is thought to be that which is opposed to the public; it is the space in which a person can develop their own personal self; it is a place of rest, of self enjoyment, of meditation. As an immigrant woman with no knowledge of English: Although she contemplates the outside world, she does not interact with it. The window becomes a symbol of imprisonment and reclusion, and the walls of the house are the barriers that set her apart from the rest of the world: Imaginary space becomes for Nazneen more real than reality in London.

    The narrative at these moments is much more vivid, poetic and positive and her descriptions are full of adjectives that denote brightness, happiness, movement and life. The contrast between imaginary space and the real one is a resource that Ali uses from the very beginning of the novel. Homesickness, the drudgeries of domestic work and the loneliness she has to endure are worsened when Nazneen is pregnant and she starts to think more frequently about her native land and her previous life in Gouripur in order to prevent herself from becoming insane: She looked at her stomach that hid her feet and forced her to lean back to counter its weight.

    They had nothing to do with her. For a couple of beats, she closed her eyes and smelled the jasmine that grew close to the well, heard the chickens scratching in the hot earth, felt the sunlight that warmed her cheeks and made dancing patterns on her eyelids. Nazneen does not like Brick Lane, its buildings, the streets, the tattooed lady. They contribute to her feeling of isolation and depression. There is neither physical nor emotional connection between her and the space she inhabits.

    She cannot identify herself in that space; the connection established between space, identity and self is broken at this moment. She can only understand and negotiate life within the context of her native land: But what can you tell to a pile of bricks? For Spain, space has been used and is still used as a way of maintaining a spatial segregation that sanctions an asymmetrical relation between women and space, and men and space: This spatial segregation that is common to social organisations is taken to the limit in the case of women immigrants such as Nazneen, because it leaves them more vulnerable and powerless.

    They are left totally under the control of their husbands and this decreases their possibilities of independence and freedom Wilson Moreover, ignoring the language of the country in which they live makes them dependent on the community and subjected to their rules and traditions. This isolation which incarcerates Nazneen is more than the mere fact of being forced to stay at home for cultural reasons and not being able to speak English; it is a state of mind that brings about depression. As a consequence of this fact, the narration at the beginning of the novel describes an oppressive, gloomy and sad environment where references to death and suicide are quite suggestive: How long for the arm?

    And for the body, an entire body? London becomes like a jungle to her. She feels doubly displaced in urban space. On the other hand, urban spaces have been traditionally constructed as masculine: An immense space of possibility and interaction is opened up for her in the city space but she is scared and confused. The streets of London become a maze for Nazneen. Urban cities have been described as a labyrinth by Elizabeth Wilson. However, as in the case of Nazneen, cities can become spaces of possibilities for women. The next thing she perceives are some pigeons.

    They are portrayed, like her, as prisoners: These two elements lead to a sense of confusion in Nazneen. God is great, said Nazneen under her breath. Nazneen feels invisible among the people in the street. She negotiates the new reality that is in front of her eyes by relating it to the only environment she knows.

    This is a crucial moment that Nazneen sees as a victory. She learns that urban space, public space, offers other possibilities to her: And in spite of the rain, and the wind which whipped it into her face, and in spite of the pain in her ankle and arm, and her bladder, and in spite of the fact that she was lost and cold and stupid, she began to feel a little pleased.

    She had spoken, in English, to a stranger, and she had been understood and acknowledged. It was very little. But it was something. She acknowledges that the personal is something political in that she draws a parallel between her actions and those of peasants who seek to prompt a revolution within the state: Nazneen begins to be integrated in London. Having the right to vote was, in fact, a crucial issue of the feminist movement. It meant leaving aside the condition of being constantly considered as a minor; it implied being a fully mature person with the right to make choices in life. Moreover, thanks to Razia, Nazneen discovers that sewing provides her with economic independence.

    At this point in the narrative Nazneen spends time looking through the window again as she had done at the beginning of the novel Furthermore, she is strong enough to reject the proposal of her lover to get divorced from her husband and marry him. The above-mentioned characters contribute to her integration in the real space because, as Doreen Massey argues, spaces have to be understood as the product of relations and, therefore, in this sense, space is a process because it is always being made Massey, Space, Place It is then that Nazneen acknowledges that London has become her home, that there is no place to return to, home in the sense of her place of origin has disappeared since there is no one back home to identify with.

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    As Avtar Brah points out, the notion of home for people who undergo a diasporic experience is problematic: On the other hand, home is also the lived experience of a locality Brah The village was leaving her. El Puente de Fuego: Cuaderno de Travesia, Spanish Edition Jan Cazador De Instantes 1 Mar Cansancio de Occidente, El 1 Aug Trias Argullol and Rafael Argullol. Previous Page 1 2 Next Page. Provide feedback about this page. Unlimited One-Day Delivery and more. There's a problem loading this menu at the moment.

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